In this article, we will tell you everything you need to know about bears, how to bear-proof your campsite and how to react when you encounter one. If you are heading to a bear county, read on further.

Attacks, Car Damage, Fear, Respect

The journey from largest omnivorous land animal in North America to snuggly nighttime buddy, is a matter that should confuse us all about North American Bears. While these creatures are some of the most beautiful on the planet we should never make the mistake of assuming they are as benign as the plush toy that sat on our pillow as a youngster.

Unfortunately, all too often, people make these mistakes with bears and get too close. Most times they are merely charged but every so often someone gets mauled to death by the apex predator. Make no mistakes about it, the bear is an apex predator.

All bears are not stone-cold killers, in fact, only about 3 people are mauled to death by bears each year. In 2005 we had our biggest year for the North American continent which saw a total of 6 deaths. Most of the time you can scare them off or take actions to deter them from bothering you, if you know how.

Do you?

Just because bears only kill three people a year doesn’t mean they are quiet for the rest of the year. Bear interaction and aggression are up as humans continue to close in on their territory. We are even seeing these creatures show up in backyards in places like New Jersey.

A mauling can leave you devastated, scarred and even disabled. While it may not result in death, it could get really bad.

Don’t forget about your car either. Bears do some severe damage to personal property each year. They can wreck your car in a hurry if you make the mistake of leaving food inside. They might smell out fragrance, perfume or leftover food and assume it might be tasty. Even with the windows up bears can rip and gnash at a car to see what’s inside.

The Bear Breakdown

Comparison of Commonly Found Bears and Their Sizes

Please feel free to contact us for high-resolution version of this illustration

Black Bear

The least aggressive of the bear species in the continental US, black bears can still be a considerable threat in the right conditions. Black bears are also considerably smaller than brown bear. Those on the east coast will be the biggest of the species.

  • Full grown males can range from 126 to 551 lbs
  • Stand just over 6ft in most cases
  • American black bear will everywhere bears should be
  • Mostly found in Appalachians of the east, the rocky mountains and the west coast


The Grizzly Bear is a simply a brown bear but its one that lives on the interior of the continent. Brown bears keep their descriptive name when they live on the coasts of Alaska and Canada. The grizzly is the biggest and most aggressive bear you will find in the United States. They have golden or grey tips on their hair and this often gives them a grizzled look.

  • Males: 400 to 790 lbs
  • Females: 290 to 400 lbs
  • Stand about 6 to 7ft tall
  • Note: Can run up to 35 miles per hour!
  • Mostly found in Idaho, Washington, Montana and Wyoming

Brown Bear

The brown bear is from the same species of bear as the grizzly. They are simply referred to as brown bear when they are found on the coastal regions.

  • Range from 500 to 1100lbs
  • Stand 9 ft tall on their back legs
  • Live in Western Alaska, Canada and Washington

When are you in Danger?

If you are going to try to better manage bears and deter them on your hiking and camping trips, you are going to have to understand them. While bears don’t kill many people, they can hurt you and will certainly scare you to death if they “bluff charge” you. Or charge you to intimidate.

There is three unique circumstances that all campers should be aware of when regarding bears and their attitude and behavior. If you can get a grip on these three situations and how to deal with them you will be better prepared to avoid bear interactions.

Storing your food in a bear canister is the best method for trapping that smell and assuring the bears have a harder time finding out what you are holding onto. These bear canisters can be purchased for just under $100 to nearly $300. They make a tremendous difference and can be very effective.

Change your Clothes after Cooking and Eating

A step that many campers often forget is to change clothes and store clothes that were used during cooking and eating. Depending on what you are eating the smoke and the smell from your clothes can be just as alluring to bears as the food itself. If you smell like a big steak, that is not a great message to send to the bears.

When you return to your camp you should be as free of any elements of your meal as possible. That might even mean a dip in the creek that you ate by.

Dispose your food properly

The final piece of the food storage puzzle is what to do with the food you don’t eat. There are serious implications with this one. You see, bears are creatures of habit and will return to a site if there was food there before. You do not want to leave food at campsite, in the campfire or anything like that. Even if you don’t return to that campsite, someone will.

Your food waste should be packed out if you are near the end of your trip. You can hang food waste and wrappers with your other food. If it is all food scraps and organic materials you can leave the food where you prepared it. Just don’t bring any of it back to camp.

Your best bet is to eat all your food and wash your containers out at the cook site. Leave the food scraps there and only return with packages. These can be hung just like the rest of your food. So bring an extra bag or cannister if you plan on operating this way.

On the Trail

Even if you are not camping or haven’t set up camp there are still responsibilities that you must take seriously along your journey.

Bears are Not Photo Opportunities

You can see all the bears you want on television, in HD or whatever. When you see that first bear in real life, amongst the backdrop of the wilderness it will take your breath away. They are a massive beast and when you see a big male or a female with some cubs it’s a special situation.

Like all special situations in our lives today you will likely reach for your phone to take pictures. Despite the size and danger of these massive apex predators, people still think its ok to get close and take pictures or even selfies with bears.

Most experiences in the wild are best left there and pictures hardly do the experience justice. So, take my advice, keep these memories to yourself.


Most people who enter the woods and the national forests don’t consider themselves a burden or out of place. This next responsibility is one that will make you think differently. Where you decide to hike, or camp is not the bears problem. Its yours. Therefore, you need to be able to tell where bears frequent, live and where they do not.

Learning the very basics of tracking and habitat can make all the difference. Lets look at 4 dead giveaways that there are bears in an area.

Common Forest Animal Traces

Bear Tracks

One of the best methods of measuring bear activity is looking at the tracks that are around an area. If you are moving off a defined path or setting up a campsite, the presence of bear tracks in an area is always a great tell.

Now, tracks can be tough to place on a timeline. They could be old tracks or new ones and it can be hard for the average person to tell the difference. For the beginner, just look at the volume. Choose quantity over quality. If there are lots of bear tracks in an area move to another spot or get off that trail.


Bear scat or droppings in an area is another wonderful way to tell that bears are in an area. If you see lots of bear scat you need to consider a new campsite as well. This means bears are close and they are eating in this area. It could be a very valuable place.

Imagine that you woke up and found someone in your kitchen or bathroom. That is what its like for a bear. This is their territory and you are an intruder.

Food Sources

Bears are omnivorous which means they eat fruits and nuts as well as meats. It might seem idea to set up camp near a thicket of wild raspberries or blackberries. This is not always a sure sign of bear activity but if you are near similar food sources and you see other signs, like tracks and scat, you need to move on.

Hints of Bear Cave

Caves and Dens

Bears live in caves and dens. These areas are pretty obvious to most because they house big creatures. Dens are often dug out from the sides of hills or mountains. They leave exposed roots and make a decent hole.

The area around bear caves may show all of the above signs mentioned. They also may show no signs. This is very important to remember. Don’t camp in or around caves, this can be very risky without bears around. Move far from bear dens and other shelters to be safe. Remember territory.

Setting up Camp

We have discussed our preparation before camp and even food storage at camp. Now its time to look at the type of camping you are doing and how that can relate to the probability of a bear interaction.

Types of Camping vs Bear Risk

Car Camping

This is a very popular mode of camping and while we are not talking about camping in the car or on the truck, which has become increasingly popular, you are always very close to your car. At these campsites you are driving a vehicle right up to a fire ring and an area to setup your tent. This method is great for families and also for beginning campers.

These campsites are well manicured and things like wildlife and even poison ivy are often managed. At these car camping sites, you are less likely to see bears because there are people whose job it is to keep them away and remove them if they show up.

Park and Hike at a Campsite

Some campsites are well known but require a bit of a hike to get to. These areas may even have fire lays or rings at various locations due to consistent camping. Some of the best examples here are wildlife management areas that are state managed.

These areas can be great fun. Bears will not be managed at many of these sites and you will be at an increased risk for bear interaction here. There will likely not be game wardens or other wildlife managing personal in the area to help you either. Keep this in mind.

Backwoods Camping

When you are camping in the backwoods you are basically on your own. In some parks you will fill out a small piece of paper to give you a little traceability but beyond that its all on you. You will be left to find your own campsite. You will be responsible for not camping in an area that could flood, where limbs might fall and kill you or where wildlife, like bears, are prevalent.

You should create very clear processes and get some car camping under your belt before you take on backwoods camping. Here there is very little room for error on all fronts. Its up to you to keep the bears away.

A Bear in Camp or Bear Interaction

There is a lot of information about bears aggressive or defensive postures. Black bears and Grizzly bears have a tendency to act differently in the situations we are going to mention. The very first step in a bear interaction is recognize what is going on and make yourself known.

From a distance you can often just avoid the bear and give it its space. That will work out in most cases. Obviously make an attempt to walk in the opposite direction of the bear.

Take Action

In some situations, you might walk up on a bear that is on your trail or in your camp. They could be there for a number of reasons. You will want to use this moment to assess what you are dealing with. Are there cubs around? Is it a black or brown bear?

An appeasing voice and slow movement away from the bear, while facing it, will often cause most bears to run off just out of the sheer fact that they know humans can be a problem. These bears might be wandering in the search of food and changing course is no sweat of their back.

In this situation you should still ready your bears spray. You can never be sure how these situations will play out. Grizzly bears are more likely to engage you in these type situations than black bears, unless they have cubs.

Defending a Carcass

If you happen upon a bear with a carcass you must understand that bear is willing to take tremendous risks for that food. Your best bet is to move away the same way you came in a calm fashion similar to above.

Keep your bear spray at the ready and if the bear leaves the carcass to approach you spray them immediately and continue moving away.

Mother with Cubs

This is the true ‘play dead scenario’ when it comes to bear contact. If a mother rushes you, bear spray, of course. If she carries on you need to curl up with your stomach towards the ground, tuck your knees and cover your head and neck as best as possible. Ideally you will be mauled until the mother bear believes you are no longer a threat.

Stay still till the mother bear is out of the area. Be very sure about this. If you are not you could get attacked twice.

If Mama starts to eat you the time has come to fight back. You need to ready any weapon you have on hand to deal with mother bear. It’s a sad situation but you have to do everything you can to survive.

Aggressive Bear

There are times when a bear will come to you. This might be in a non-defensive, exploratory manner or in an aggressive manner. With these types of bears you must remain firm. Eye contact is important and a strong voice. Move out of the way of the animal, if you can and it might just pass by. You could be in its way.

If the bear follows you this means you are being tested. It is looking to see if you are a threat or if it can eat you or something you have. In this instance it is very important that you prepare to fight. Use your deterrents and a big posture. Yell at the bear and get those in your party to do the same.

In most cases this will scare the bear away. If you find yourself in combat with the bear you need to attack with any weapons, firearms or sticks that you have. Attack the eyes, nose and face of the animal.

First aid following a Bear Attack

There are many instances where you will benefit from having a first aid kit. You would be foolish to enter the woods without one. After a bear attack you will likely be contending with a few serious injuries. In many instances people who are attacked by bears suffer only a few scrapes and bruises.

Its not always a horror show.

Still, you will want to be able to deal with a few things.

  • Punctures
  • Bruises
  • Fractures
  • Cuts

Your best bet will be to get to a doctor as soon as possible but that might be out of the question. Till then you will need to do your best to clean, medicate and cover open wounds. You might also have to splint broken bones.

Here is a list of IFAK items that you should pack for just this situation.

  • Israeli Bandages
  • Tourniquet
  • Quick Clot
  • Antispetic for cleaning wounds
  • Antibiotic Ointment
  • Ace Bandages
  • Good Quality Bandages
  • Rolled Gauze
  • Gauze Pads
  • Nitrile Gloves
  • Tweezers
  • Splint (or the required skills to create a splint)

Report Activity

The bear that attacked you could attack other people. You will not know the motivations or the reasoning behind the attack, unless you spooked a mother and its cubs. If you can report the attack or have someone report it, it could save someone else from going through a similar or worse situation.

Of course, get help first but if you can report the activity it will benefit those in the surrounding areas.

This should be your final task in dealing with a bear.

Profile Picture James Walton
James is the author of Come Unity; Community and the host of the I AM Liberty Show. He is also a freelance writer writing for survival and outdoor publications and blogs